Tunnel building necessitates extensive excavation of earth, rock, and other materials.
Fremont, CA: As business systems become more sophisticated and specialized, they generate increasingly valuable data collections that help businesses make better decisions or meet regulatory reporting needs. A tunnel is an underground corridor beneath the earth's surface or water. The various tunnel construction methods and their specifics get discussed.Tunnel building is generally costly, but it saves time and gives comfort. Tunnel building necessitates extensive excavation of earth, rock, and other materials.
Different Techniques of Tunnel Construction
Clay Kicking Method of Tunnel Construction
For clayey soils, this approach gets employed. It is an old approach that is still helpful for little jobs such as installing sewage pipes. In this procedure, a hole gets dug into the earth, and then a depth tunnel is dug by a clay kicker, mounted on a plank at a 45o angle. Under the clay kicker foot, there is a digging tool. Then, other employees collect the material excavated with that instrument. This practice is well-known since Englishmen utilized to bury mines beneath the German empire during the First World War.
Shaft Method of Tunnel Construction
The tunnel is built at a greater depth from the ground surface in this manner. The shaft gets constructed to the depth at which a tunnel is necessary. The shaft is a long-term construction that works well with concrete walls. TBMs were helpful to excavate tunnels to the appropriate depth.
Tunnels have shafts at both the entrance and exit. If the tunnel is excessively long, intermediate shafts get constructed. These shafts can get utilized for ventilation as well as emergency exits after the construction process gets finished.
Pipe Jacking Method of Tunnel Construction
The pipe jacking method is helpful to build tunnels beneath existing facilities such as roads and railways. In addition, hydraulic jacks are beneficial to drive specially designed pipes into the earth in this approach. Tunnels can have a maximum diameter of 3.2 meters.
Box Jacking Method of Tunnel Construction
Box jacking is similar to pipe jacking, except that instead of pipes, specifically constructed boxes get driven into the ground. On the front side of the box, there is a cutting head. The box is helpful to collect the excavated material. Box jacks up to 20 meters can be used to construct larger tunnels.
Underwater Tunnel Construction
An underwater tunnel is a structure erected beneath the water's surface to allow passage through it. If a bridge cannot get built, an underwater tunnel is a viable option. Tunneling beneath the water is a costly technique, but it has advantages over bridges and ferries. The two most prevalent ways of constructing underwater tunnels get immersed tubes and bored tunnels.
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